In Wake County, students who start school one hour later have 1. Technology use computers, video gaming, or mobile phones may also contribute to late bedtimes. Data and Methods The data used in this study come from two sources.
The second source of data is the start times for each Wake County public school, which are recorded annually and were provided by the WCPSS transportation department. To further investigate how the effect of later start times varies with age, I estimate the effect of start times on upper elementary students grades 3—5.
Adolescents who are exposed to more light such as room lighting or from electronics in the evening are less likely to get enough sleep. Proponents of later start times, who have received considerable media attention in recent years, argue that many students who have to wake up early for school do not get enough sleep and that beginning the school day at a later time would boost their achievement.
Because they also get out of school earlier, they could spend more or less time playing sports, watching television, or doing homework. Good sleep hygiene in combination with later school times will enable adolescents to be healthier and better academic achievers.
Not engage in daily physical activity. The results indicate that the effect of a later start time in both math and reading is more than twice as large for students in the bottom third of the test-score distribution than for students in the top third.
Students who start school earlier come home from school earlier and may, as a result, spend more time at home alone and less time at home with their parents. As this suggests, this method can only be used for the roughly 28 percent of students in my sample whose middle school changed its start time while they were enrolled.
I still control for all of the student and school characteristics mentioned earlier. Beginning in puberty, "adolescents are programmed to fall asleep later," says Dr.
And it might be time to fix that. The percentage of schools starting at 8: Protective and risk factors for adolescent sleep: As noted above, however, these results could be biased by unmeasured differences between early- and late-starting schools or the students who attend them.
But if beginning the school day early in the morning has a negative impact on academic performance, staggering start times may not be worth the cost savings. Controlling for the start time of their high school, I find that students whose middle school started one hour later when they were in 8th grade continue to score 2 percentile points higher in both math and reading when tested in grade I find that delaying school start times by one hour, from roughly 7: While my data do not allow me to explore all possible mechanisms, I am able to test several of them.
These calculations, while very rough, suggest that delaying the beginning of the school day may produce a comparable improvement in test scores at a fraction of the cost. More than one-quarter of students begin school at 8: The results indicate that a one-hour delay in start time increases standardized test scores on both math and reading tests by roughly 3 percentile points.
One of the reasons adolescents do not get enough sleep is early school start times. The effect is largest for students with below-average test scores, suggesting that later start times would narrow gaps in student achievement.
These results suggest that delaying start times may be a cost-effective method of increasing student performance. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that middle and high schools start at 8: The results produced by this first approach could be misleading, however, if middle schools with later start times differ from other schools in unmeasured ways.School Really Should Start Later And it might be time to fix that.
A recent study suggests that the timing of the first bell at schools is hurting adolescents, whose natural clocks aren’t.
Video production in partnership with. Poll Data. In fact, public opinion seems to side with Lofgren's "Zzz's to A's" resolution. According to the National Sleep Foundation's Sleep in America poll, 80% of respondents said high schools should start. However, elementary schools start much later than middle schools (more than half of elementary schools begin atand almost all of the rest begin at ).
As a result, it is not clear if there is no effect because start times are not a factor in the academic performance of prepubescent students, or because the schools start much later and. And while later start times won’t replace other important interventions—like parents making sure their children get enough rest—schools clearly play an important role in students’ daily.
Express yourself freely about the issue of whether or not schools should start later for students of certain ages. Hundreds of schools around the United States have restored later start times, and many more never moved to extremely early hours in the first place.
The schools that have found affordable, feasible ways to do so have been both large and small.Download