Explain the pathophysiology of AF, and how it causes the above signs and symptoms. Andros presents to the emergency department with chest discomfort consistent with acute coronary syndrome. Noxious stimuli such as smoking leads to a chronic inflammatory response, which releases elastase and causes destruction of alveolar walls.
Provide four 4 priority interventions you would complete, and include a rationale for each. Atrial rate can be between bpm.
Anginine glyceryl nitrates is metabolised and converted to NO which causes vasodilation of blood vessels. How would you respond?
It is indicated for acute exacerbation of asthma, or for conditions with bronchoconstriction What is the pathophysiology of emphysema? Specifically, where does it act, what ions does it effect and what would you need to monitor after it is adminstered?
This leads to significant pressure and loss of negative pressure with lung collapse. The kidneys are responsible for producing erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells.
Due to the one way valve, pressure continues to build within the mediastinum, and pressure forces the heart and mediastinal structures into the uninjured side. There is a loss of elasticity and this all leads to impaired gas exchange and dyspnoea. As the AV node will not be able to filter all of these signals, this leads to inadequate emptying of the atria with blood pooling which increases risk of clots and stroke.
Explain the underlying pathophysiology of this pleural injury Air enters pleural space but has nowhere to escape one way valveresulting in accumulation of air.
Explain how histamine, leukotreines and platelet activating factor PAF leads to airway obstruction and bronchospasms. Alpha cells within the pancreas What are the expected physiological effects when adrenoceptors are innervated?
Macrovascular - AMI, stroke Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory and obstructive airway disease. There is reduced blood flow to the coronary arteries leading to angina, and the poor perfusion to the brain results in lightheadedness Prednisolone belongs to which drug class?
Based on these results, what respiratory effects do you expect to see in the patient? What do you expect the serum creatinine levels to be? The registrar requests blood tests including cardiac enzymes to confirm this. What is the pharmacology of frusemide?
A cardiac event whereby there is a sudden and complete occlusion of a major coronary artery, leading to ischaemia which results in full thickness damage of the heart muscle Mr. What is the pharmacology of potassium sparing diuretics, and what are three 3 adverse effects of this drug?
The ventricular rate also increases, which reduces the filling time and this reduces SV, then CO and tissue perfusion. Heparin Mr Smith is complaining of increasing chest pain and tightness, and you administer anginine sublingually as per the PRN drug chart.
Reversible bronchoconstriction, oedema of airways, and mucous hypersecretion What is the pharmacology of salbutamol, and what is it indicated for? There is disorganised, multiple electrical impulses being generated within the atria.
AF is defined as a tachy-arrhythmia characterised by predominantly uncoordinated atrial activation.
What is the mechanism of action of warfarin in preventing the risk of clot formation? She is diagnosed with chronic renal failure.
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