Nietzsche sees the facts and things of traditional philosophy as far from rigid, and subject to all sorts of shifts and changes. The concept of "good" has had different meanings over time because different wills have come to appropriate the concept.
Nietzsche also subjects physics to critique. However, later in the book, Nietzsche contradicts himself in regards to morality, which he states is at the opposite end of the staircase to immorality. Nietzsche sees the world as complex and three-dimensional: These aphorisms are grouped thematically into nine different chapters and are bookended by a preface and a poem.
Because language has this tendency toward fixity, it expresses the world in terms of facts and things, which has led philosophers to think of the world as fixed rather than fluid. Structure of the work[ edit ] The work consists of numbered sections and an "epode" or "aftersong" entitled "From High Mountains".
At bottom, however, everyone has prejudices. This section contains words approx. In the end, it is up to you to create yourself. In reality, however, it is quite otherwise with you: A world of rigid facts can be spoken about definitively, which is the source of our conception of truth and other absolutes, such as God and morality.
In this way, Nietzsche attempts to find the expression of his thoughts in language that best preserves their fluidity and three-dimensionality. In their place, he offers the " will to power " as an explanation of all behavior; this ties into his "perspective of life", which he regards as "beyond good and evil", denying a universal morality for all human beings.
But this is an old and everlasting story: He closes the book with a weak poem about such a noble soul sitting on a mountaintop wishing he had more friends. Then, during his brief career in the cavalry, he tore several muscles in his side, and while serving as a medical orderly in the Franco-Prussian war, contracted a number of diseases.
The underlying force driving all change is will, according to Nietzsche. Our thoughts can flow and change just as things in the universe flow and change, but a word, once uttered, cannot be changed. Imagine to yourselves a being like Nature, boundlessly extravagant, boundlessly indifferent, without purpose or consideration, without pity or justice, at once fruitful and barren and uncertain: The author believes he is a man of change and growth, forever seeking answers to unanswerable questions.
The author believes women are frivolous, incompetent creatures who should do as they are told and keep their mouths shut. Meaning and interpretation are merely signs that a will is operating on a concept. Rather than try to talk about the "truth," we should try to remain as flexible as possible, looking at matters from as many different perspectives as possible.
While man may have the innate ability to do this, many do not have the wherewithal or the ambition to search beneath all they have been taught. Nietzsche cites the difference in tempo between languages as one of the reasons most works and ideas are misinterpreted.
The author often compares to women to artists who work not from knowledge but only from instinct. Because of this difference between people, it would be absurd to apply one moral code to all people.
With all your love for truth, you have forced yourselves so long, so persistently, and with such hypnotic rigidity to see Nature FALSELY, that is to say, Stoically, that you are no longer able to see it otherwise—and to crown all, some unfathomable superciliousness gives you the Bedlamite hope that BECAUSE you are able to tyrannize over yourselves—Stoicism is self-tyranny—Nature will also allow herself to be tyrannized over: In the end, Nietzsche sees himself as a man who has dared to delve into the truth, with no topic safe from exploration.
Further, there are forceful attacks on several individual philosophers. Words, unlike thoughts, are fixed. In your pride you wish to dictate your morals and ideals to Nature, to Nature herself, and to incorporate them therein; you insist that it shall be Nature "according to the Stoa," and would like everything to be made after your own image, as a vast, eternal glorification and generalism of Stoicism!
Religion and the master and slave moralities feature prominently as Nietzsche re-evaluates deeply held humanistic beliefs, portraying even domination, appropriation and injury to the weak as not universally objectionable.
Religion has always been connected to "three dangerous dietary prescriptions: This leads some lovers to want their women to know them deep down so that their sacrifice really is a sacrifice for them.
A still more refined desire to possess her prompts a concern that she might be willing to sacrifice what she desires for a mistaken image of her lover. He finds such a mediocrity in modern scholarship, which is overly concerned with digging up dry, dull facts.
Why should you make a principle out of what you yourselves are, and must be? On morality and religion[ edit ] In the "pre-moral" period of mankind, actions were judged by their consequences.
A subtler desire to possess her wants her soul, as well, and thus wants her to be willing to sacrifice herself for her lover. So, that being the case, how did he gain such an unfortunate reputation at all? Maxims and Interludes Part Five:In using the title Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche wanted to emphasize his belief that persons of noble character need an ethical system that is more sophisticated than the rules and principles.
Nietzsche says Beyond good and evil is all about Zarathustra, who spoke about overman and eternal return, which then should have to be said beyond good and evil: namely, removed from good and evil, though still quite possibly connected (i.e.
good and evil could still be in Zarathustra's thoughts of overman and eternal recurrence, and could. Beyond Good and Evil Summary & Study Guide Friedrich Nietzsche This Study Guide consists of approximately 31 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more - everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of Beyond Good and Evil.
“Madness is something rare in individuals — but in groups, parties, peoples, and ages, it is the rule.” ― Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil.
Friedrich Nietzsche's Beyond Good and Evil is translated from the German by R.J. Hollingdale with an introduction by Michael Tanner in Penguin Classics. Beyond Good and Evil confirmed Nietzsche's position as the towering European philosopher of his age.4/5.
The following is a reprint of the Helen Zimmern translation from German into English of "Beyond Good and Evil," as published in The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche (). Some adaptations from the original text were made to format it into an e-text.Download